Verse 9:29 – The Verse of Jizyah

28 Aug

Authoritatively & Conclusively PROVING that christians and jews are kafirs

As-Salamu ‘Alaikum

This verse, 9:29, its commentary, and the fiqh commands pertaining to it, will AUTHORITATIVELY and CONCLUSIVELY establish that christians and jews are indeed kafirs, the sabians and magians and hindus and buddhists, and others only being worse kafirs than them.

It establishes the fact that christians and jews – the ahl al-kitab – are in fact benchmark kafirs – that is – any other kafir is only worse than them in his disbelief and infidelity. These people, despite having a book that they have corrupted, and despite associating themselves with some prophets of Allah, are kafirs.

Slapping the jizyah onto the kuffaar of a Muslim state is mandatory, and the jizyah is definitely charged to christians and jews, as it is to all kafirs – this being the ruling of ALL FOUR madhhabs of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah – THIS IN ITSELF – is the GREATEST PROOF that christians and jews are kafirs.

This is the verse:

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ

Translation of meaning: War [against] the people who do not believe in Allah nor the last day, nor hold that as forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and [those that] take not as their religion the religion of truth (Islam) from those who have been given a book – until they pay the jizya with their hands, and they’re humiliated. [Holy Quran 9:29]

Explanation of the commands and rulings pertaining to the verse – from Imam Abu Bakr Al-Jassas Al-Hanafi’s Ahkam Al-Quran

بَابُ أَخْذُ الْجِزْيَةِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ

قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : { قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاَللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دَيْنَ الْحَقِّ مِنْ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ }

Chapter On Charging Jizyah To ahl al-kitab

Allah ‘Azza wa Jall said {War [against] the people who do not believe in Allah nor the last day, nor hold that as forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and [those that] take not as their religion the religion of truth (Islam) from those who have been given a book – until they pay the jizya with their hands, and they’re humiliated.}

أَخْبَرَ تَعَالَى عَنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَنَّهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاَللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ مَعَ إظْهَارِهِمْ الْإِيمَانَ بِالنُّشُورِ وَالْبَعْثِ ,

The Almighty informs regarding the ahl al-kitab that they do not believe in Allah nor in the last day, faith in resurrection and returning to life [on the day of judgment] by expression.

وَذَلِكَ يَحْتَمِلُ وُجُوهًا :

And this is due to a few reasons:

أَحَدُهَا : أَنْ يَكُونَ مُرَادُهُ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ الَّذِي يَجْرِي حُكْمُ اللَّهِ فِيهِ مِنْ تَخْلِيدِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فِي النَّارِ , وَتَخْلِيدِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ , فَلَمَّا كَانُوا غَيْرَ مُؤْمِنِينَ بِذَلِكَ أَطْلَقَ الْقَوْلَ فِيهِمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ , وَمُرَادُهُ حُكْمُ يَوْمِ الْآخِرِ , وَقَضَاؤُهُ فِيهِ , كَمَا تَقُولُ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ غَيْرُ مُؤْمِنِينَ بِالنَّبِيِّ , وَالْمُرَادُ بِنُبُوَّةِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم .

The first one: The implication is that they do not believe in the last day as stated, that the command of Allah in it will be on the ahl al-kitab being in the inferno everlastingly and that the everlastingness of the Mumineen (Muslims) will be in paradise. Then, when someone does not believe in this [regarding Muslims staying in heaven everlastingly and ahl al-kitab everlastingly in the inferno], then the saying that ‘they do not believe in the last day’ applies on them. And its implication [by stating the ‘last day’] is the JUDGMENT to be executed on the last day, and the fate handed out in it – just as when we say that the ahl al-kitab do not believe in the Prophet, the implication is to the PROPHETHOOD of the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam [and not merely acknowledging him as a historical figure].

وَقِيلَ : فِيهِ إنَّهُ أَطْلَقَ ذَلِكَ فِيهِمْ عَلَى طَرِيقِ الذَّمِّ لِأَنَّهُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ مَنْ لَا يُقِرُّ بِهِ فِي عِظَمِ الْجُرْمِ , كَمَا إنَّهُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فِي عِبَادَةِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِكُفْرِهِمْ الَّذِي اعْتَقَدُوهُ .

And they [scholars] say: This [being disbelievers in the last day] applies on them by way of condemnation because they are at the state of those who do not recognize it in the magnitude of its seriousness – just as they are at the level of idolators in [matters of] their worships to Allah Ta’ala due to the kufr that they believe in.

وَقِيلَ : أَيْضًا : لَمَّا كَانَ إقْرَارُهُمْ عَنْ غَيْرِ مَعْرِفَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ إيمَانًا , وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ . وقوله تعالى : { وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ } فَإِنَّ دِينَ الْحَقِّ هُوَ الْإِسْلَامُ , وَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : { إنَّ الدِّينَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الْإِسْلَامُ } وَهُوَ التَّسْلِيمُ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ , وَمَا جَاءَتْ بِهِ رُسُلُهُ , وَالِانْقِيَادُ لَهُ , وَالْعَمَلُ بِهِ.

AND It is ALSO said [by scholars]: When they acknowledge [that is, in a casual, careless manner, as in believing with a superficial and mocking attitude] without firm realization, this is not belief, and the majority of them [ahl al-kitab] share this attribute. And the Almighty’s saying: {and [those that] take not as their religion the religion of truth (Islam) (9:29)} indeed, the “true religion” is Islam, and Allah Ta’ala said {Indeed the ONLY religion [acceptable] before Allah is Islam(3:19)} and it is ABSOLUTE SURRENDER to the will & command of Allah and all that His messengers have brought, and acceptance of it and acting upon it.

وَالدِّينُ يَنْصَرِفُ عَلَى وُجُوهٍ : مِنْهَا الطَّاعَةُ , وَمِنْهَا الْقَهْرُ , وَمِنْهَا الْجَزَاءُ ; قَالَ الْأَعْشَى : هُوَ دَانَ الرَّبَابَ اُذْكُرْ هُوَ  الدِّي نُ دِرَاكًا بِغَزْوَةٍ وَصِيَالِ يَعْنِي : قَهَرَ الرَّبَابَ إذْ كَرِهُوا طَاعَتَهُ وَأَبَوْا الِانْقِيَادَ لَهُ .

And religion has faces: It includes obedience, and it includes punishment, and it includes rewards. Al-A’asha said [couplet, rough translation]: He is following the clouds, remember, the following – it is diligently continuing into forays and battles. That is: The clouds vanquish him and extract his following and coerce his acceptance.

وقوله تعالى : { مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ } قِيلَ : إنَّهُ يَوْمُ الْجَزَاءِ , وَمِنْهُ : كَمَا تَدِينُ تُدَانُ . مَطْلَبٌ : فِي تَفْسِيرِ دِينِ الْحَقِّ وَدِينُ الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى غَيْرُ دِينِ الْحَقِّ ; لِأَنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مُنْقَادِينَ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ وَلَا طَائِعِينَ لَهُ  لِجُحُودِهِمْ نُبُوَّةَ نَبِيِّنَا صلى الله عليه وسلم .

And the Almighty’s saying: {Owner of the day of religion [i.e., day of judgment](1:4)}, they [scholars] say: Indeed it is the day of recompense, and from it: as you have followed [in religion], so shall you be led [i.e, your recompense will be commensurate with your input in this life]. The point: In the tafsiir of “the true religion” (deenil haqq), the religion of jews and christians is NOT the true religion (deenil haqq) BECAUSE – they do not implement the command of Allah and neither are they obedient to him because of their arrogant denial of the prophethood of our Prophet [Muhammad], sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

فَإِنْ قِيلَ : فَهُمْ يَدِينُونَ بِدِينِ التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ , وَيَعْتَرِفُونَ بِهِ مُنْقَادِينَ لَهُ .

Then if someone says: But they believe in the religion of the Torah and the Injiil, and they accept it and implement it.

قِيلَ : لَهُ : فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ ذُكِرَ نَبِيُّنَا , وَأُمِرْنَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَاتِّبَاعِ شَرَائِعِهِ , وَهُمْ غَيْرُ عَامِلِينَ بِذَلِكَ بَلْ تَارِكُونَ لَهُ , فَهُمْ غَيْرُ مُتَّبِعِينَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ.

It is said to them: In the Torah and the Injiil there is mention of our Prophet [Muhammad], and they [i.e., Torah and Injiil] command us [i.e., people] to believe in him and follow his laws [i.e., the new laws given to him by Allah], and they do not do this, instead, they reject it, therefore, they are not the followers of the true religion [Islam].

وَأَيْضًا فَإِنَّ شَرِيعَةَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ قَدْ نُسِخَتْ , وَالْعَمَلُ بِهَا بَعْدَ النَّسْخِ ضَلَالٌ فَلَيْسَ هُوَ إذًا دِينَ الْحَقِّ .

Furthermore, the laws of the Torah and the Injiil have been abrogated anyway, and action upon it after abrogation is misguidance. Hence, it [ahl al-kitab religion] is definitely NOT the true religion.

وَأَيْضًا فَهُمْ قَدْ غَيَّرُوا الْمَعَانِيَ وَحَرَّفُوهَا عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهَا , وَأَزَالُوهَا إلَى مَا تَهْوَاهُ أَنْفُسُهُمْ دُونَ مَا أَوْجَبَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ كُتُبُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى , فَهُمْ غَيْرُ دَائِنِينَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ .

Still furthermore, they have changed the meanings and tampered with their [Torah & Injiil] purport, and deleted whatever suited their whims and fancies – alien to what those books of Allah Ta’ala made obligatory on them. Therefore, they are not adherents/followers of the true religion.

قوله تعالى : { مِنْ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ } فَإِنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ الْكُفَّارِ هُمْ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى لقوله تعالى : { أَنْ تَقُولُوا إنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَى طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا } فَلَوْ كَانَ الْمَجُوسُ أَوْ غَيْرُهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشِّرْكِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَكَانُوا ثَلَاثَ طَوَائِفَ , وَقَدْ اقْتَضَتْ الْآيَةُ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ طَائِفَتَانِ ; وَقَدْ بَيَّنَّاهُ فِيمَا سَلَفَ .

The Almighty’s saying: {from those who have been given a book (9:29)} [means] indeed, the ahl al-kitab, the jews and christians, are from the kuffaar, due to the Almighty’s saying: {Lest you should say, “The book was descended onto two peoples before us [i.e., jews & christians]”…(6:156)}. If the magians and other people from the polytheists are from ahl al-kitab, then they are three peoples. And as the ayah dictates, the ahl al-kitab are TWO peoples [i.e., jews and christians], and we have described this in what preceded.

وَتَقَدَّمَ الْكَلَامُ أَيْضًا فِي حُكْمِ الصَّابِئِينَ , وَهَلْ هُمْ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَمْ لَا

And the discourse advances to the ruling on the sabians, and are they ahl al-kitab or not?

, وَهُمْ فَرِيقَانِ : أَحَدُهُمَا : بِنَوَاحِي كَسْكَرَ وَالْبَطَائِحَ , وَهُمْ فِيمَا بَلَغْنَا صِنْفٌ مِنْ النَّصَارَى , وَإِنْ كَانُوا مُخَالِفِينَ لَهُمْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنْ دِيَانَاتِهِمْ ; لِأَنَّ النَّصَارَى فِرَقٌ كَثِيرَةٌ مِنْهُمْ الْمَرْقُونِيَّةُ والْآرْيُوسِيَّةُ , وَالْمَارُونِيَّةُ , وَالْفِرَقُ الثَّلَاثُ مِنْ النَّسْطُورِيَّةِ وَالْمَلْكِيَّةِ , وَالْيَعْقُوبِيَّةِ يَبْرَءُونَ مِنْهُمْ , وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُمْ , وَهُمْ يَنْتَمُونَ إلَى يَحْيَى بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا , وَشِيثٌ , وَيَنْتَحِلُونَ كُتُبًا يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهَا كُتُبُ اللَّهِ الَّتِي أَنْزَلَهَا عَلَى شِيثِ بْنِ آدَمَ , وَيَحْيَى بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا , , وَالنَّصَارَى تُسَمِّيهِمْ يُوحَنَّاسِيَّةَ ; فَهَذِهِ الْفِرْقَةُ يَجْعَلُهَا أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ رحمه الله مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ , وَيُبِيحُ أَكْلَ ذَبَائِحِهِمْ , وَمُنَاكَحَةَ نِسَائِهِمْ .

And they are of two sects. The first one: They follow [i.e., belong to] Kaskara and Bataiha, and they, as has reached us, are a group from the christians. And they have many people among them going against many religions, because the christians have a lot of sects. From among them are the marqooniyyah, aaryoosiyyah, and the maarooniyyah, and three sects from the Nestorians and the malkiyyah, and the jacobites are different from them and do not permit them, and they are attributed to Yahya bin Zakariyya and the Prophet Sheeth, and they are attributed with books that they allege are Allah’s books descended on Sheeth, the son of Adam, and Yahya bin Zakariyya and the christians call them Yoohannaasiyyah (Baptists) – and THIS is the sect that Abu Hanifa, rahimahullah, declared to be from the ahl al-kitab and  permitted to eat their slaughter and marry their women.

وَفِرْقَةٌ أُخْرَى قَدْ تَسَمَّتْ بِالصَّابِئِينَ , وَهُمْ الْحَرَّانِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ بِنَاحِيَةِ حَرَّانَ , وَهُمْ عَبَدَةُ الْأَوْثَانِ , وَلَا يَنْتَمُونَ إلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ , وَلَا يَنْتَحِلُونَ شَيْئًا مِنْ كُتُبِ اللَّهِ , فَهَؤُلَاءِ لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ . وَلَا خِلَافَ أَنَّ هَذِهِ النِّحْلَةَ لَا تُؤْكَلُ ذَبَائِحُهُمْ , وَلَا تُنْكَحُ نِسَاؤُهُمْ , فَمَذْهَبُ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ فِي جَعْلِهِ الصَّابِئِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَحْمُولٌ عَلَى مُرَادِهِ الْفِرْقَةَ الْأُولَى . وَأَمَّا أَبُو يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ فَقَالَا : { إنَّ الصَّابِئِينَ لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ } وَلَمْ يُفَصِّلُوا بَيْنَ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ .

And the next sect that has been called sabians, they are Harranites, people from Harran, and they worship idols, and are not attributed to any one [i.e., have no coennection, even if false] from the prophets, and not connected in any way to any of the books of Allah, and they are NOT ahl al-kitab. And there is no doubt that this group’s slaughter is not permitted to be eaten, nor their women permitted to be married. And the madhab of Abu Hanifa that has stated the sabians from the ahl al-kitab refers to the first sect [mentioned above]. And in fact Abu Yusuf and Muhammad [Abu Hanifa’s two top students, whose unanimous opinion is considered equal to the opinion of Abu Hanifa] have BOTH said {the sabians are NOT ahl al-kitab} and they haven’t differentiated between the 2 sects [of the sabians that have just been described].

وَقَدْ رُوِيَ فِي ذَلِكَ اخْتِلَافٌ بَيْنَ التَّابِعِينَ . وَرَوَى هُشَيْمٌ  أَخْبَرَنَا مُطَرِّفٌ قَالَ : كُنَّا عِنْدَ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ فَحَدَّثَهُ رَجُلٌ عَنْ الْحَسَنِ الْبَصْرِيِّ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي الصَّابِئِينَ هُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمَجُوسِ , فَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ : أَلَيْسَ قَدْ كُنْت أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ بِذَلِكَ ؟ وَرَوَى عَبَّادُ بْنُ الْعَوَّامِ عَنْ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ الْقَاسِمِ بْن أَبِي بَزَّةَ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ قَالَ : الصَّابِئُونَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ بَيْنَ الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى لَيْسَ لَهُمْ كِتَابٌ , وَكَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ الْأَوْزَاعِيِّ وَمَالِكِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ .

And the same disagreement has been reported between the tabi’een. Hushaym narrates: Mutarrif informed us, he said: We were with Hakam bin ‘Uyaynah and a man sent by Hasan Al-Basri came, he was saying regarding the sabians that they are at the same level as the magians; then Hasan said: “Haven’t I informed you the same?” And ‘Abbad ibn ‘Awwam narrates on account of Hajjaj who says on account of Qasim bin Abi Bazzah, who says on account of Mujahid: The sabians are a people from the idolaters, between the jews and christians, they do not believe in a book. And the same has been stated by Awzaa’iy and Malik ibn Anas.

وَرَوَى يَزِيدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ عَنْ حَبِيبِ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ هَرِمٍ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنْ الصَّابِئِينَ أَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ هُمْ وَطَعَامُهُمْ وَنِسَاؤُهُمْ حِلٌّ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ؟ فَقَالَ : نَعَمْ . وَأَمَّا الْمَجُوسُ فَلَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ بِدَلَالَةِ الْآيَةِ وَلِمَا رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ : { سُنُّوا بِهِمْ سُنَّةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ } , وَفِي ذَلِكَ دَلَالَةٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُمْ لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ .

And Yaziid ibn Haroon narrates on account of Habib bin Abi Habibwho says on account of ‘Amr bin Harim, who says on account of Jabin bin Zayd that he was asked about the sabians and if they are from the ahl al-kitab and if their food [i.e., slaughter] their women were permissible on Muslims? And he said: Yes. As for the magians, they are NOT ahl al-kitab due to the evidence in the verse and as has been narrated from the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, where stated {Do with them, as you would do with the ahl al-kitab} and therein lies the evidence that they are NOT ahl al-kitab [for if they were, the Prophet wouldn’t have asked to treat them ‘like the ahl al-kitab’].

وَقَدْ اخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ فِيمَنْ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمْ الْجِزْيَةُ مِنْ الْكُفَّارِ بَعْدَ اتِّفَاقِهِمْ عَلَى جَوَازِ إقْرَارِ الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى بِالْجِزْيَةِ , فَقَالَ أَصْحَابُنَا : { لَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْ مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ إلَّا الْإِسْلَامُ أَوْ السَّيْفُ , وَتُقْبَلُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ الْعَرَبِ , وَمِنْ سَائِرِ كُفَّارِ الْعَجَمِ الْجِزْيَةُ } . وَذَكَرَ ابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ مَالِكٍ : { أَنَّهُ تُقْبَلُ مِنْ الْجَمِيعِ الْجِزْيَةُ إلَّا مِنْ مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ } وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الزِّنْجِ , وَنَحْوِهِمْ : { إذَا سُبُوا يُجْبَرُونَ عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ } . وَرُوِيَ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ : يُقَاتَلُ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ عَلَى الْجِزْيَةِ , وَأَهْلُ الْأَوْثَانِ عَلَى الصَّلَاةِ , , وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يُرِيدَ بِهِ أَهْلَ الْأَوْثَانِ مِنْ الْعَرَبِ , وَقَالَ الثَّوْرِيُّ : الْعَرَبُ لَا يُسْبَوْنَ , وَهَوَازِنُ سُبُوا ثُمَّ تَرَكَهُمْ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم . وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ : { لَا تُقْبَلُ الْجِزْيَةُ إلَّا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ عَرَبًا كَانُوا أَوْ عَجَمًا } .

And the people of knowledge [i.e., mujtahid mutalq scholars] have disagreed on which of the kuffaar will be charged with the jizyah, after they have agreed that jizyah will [definitely] be charged on the jews and christians. Our [Hanafi] associates have said: {From the Arab idolaters, nothing other than Islam or the sword is acceptable, but from the ahl al-kitab of the Arabs and the rest of the kuffaar of the non-Arabs, jizyah is accepted}. And Ibn Qasim mentions on account of Malik: {Jizyah is accepted from all [kuffaar] except the idol worshipers of the Arabs}. And Malik said in Az-Zinji and what follows: {If they are humiliated, they will be forced with Islam}. And it has been narrated from Mujahid, he said: The ahl al-kitab will be fought [until they agree] upon the jizyah, and the people of idols [until they agree] upon the salah [i.e., Islam], and the [dominant] possibility [i.e., opinion, and on it there are no disagreements of scholars] is that this [Islam] is what is wanted of the Arab idolators. And Ath-Thawriy said, “The Arabs are not to be humiliated”. The Hawazin were humiliated, but later the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, left them. And Ash-Shafi’iy said: {The jizyah is not accepted of anyone except the ahl al-kitab, be they Arab or non-Arab}

قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ : قوله تعالى : { فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ } يَقْتَضِي قَتْلَ سَائِرِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ , فَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ : إنَّ عُمُومَهُ مَقْصُورٌ عَلَى عَبَدَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ دُونَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمَجُوسِ ;

Abu Bakr said: The Almighty’s saying: {Then war [with] the mushrikiin wherever you find them(9:5)} mandates the slaying of all mushrikiin. Then there are people who say: The general implication in that is towards those who worship idols, aside from the ahl al-kitab and the magians.

لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى قَدْ فَرَّقَ فِي اللَّفْظِ بَيْنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَبَيْنَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمَجُوسِ بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى : { إنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَاَلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالصَّابِئِينَ وَالنَّصَارَى وَالْمَجُوسَ وَاَلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا } فَعَطَفَ بِالْمُشْرِكِينَ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْأَصْنَافِ ,

Because Allah Ta’ala has differentiated in the terminology between [other] polytheists and the ahl al-kitab and the magians, by His Ta’ala’s saying: {Indeed, the BELIEVERS, and the jews, and the sabians, and the christians, and the magians, and the idol-worshipers (22:17)} He has shown kindness to these groups of polytheists.

فَدَلَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى أَنَّ إطْلَاقَ هَذَا اللَّفْظِ يَخْتَصُّ بِعَبَدَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ ,

It then establishes that this word [mushrik] is specific to the idolaters.

وَإِنْ كَانَ الْجَمِيعُ مِنْ النَّصَارَى , وَالْمَجُوسِ , وَالصَّابِئِينَ مُشْرِكِينَ ;

Even though ALL of the christians, magians, and sabians are mushrikin [in essence].

وَذَلِكَ لِأَنَّ النَّصَارَى قَدْ أَشْرَكَتْ بِعِبَادَةِ اللَّهِ عِبَادَةَ الْمَسِيحِ , وَالْمَجُوسُ مُشْرِكُونَ مِنْ حَيْثُ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ نِدًّا مُغَالِبًا , وَالصَّابِئُونَ فَرِيقَانِ : أَحَدُهُمَا : عَبَدَةُ الْأَوْثَانِ , وَالْآخَرُ لَا يَعْبُدُونَ الْأَوْثَانَ , وَلَكِنَّهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ  فِي وُجُوهٍ أُخَرُ , إلَّا أَنَّ إطْلَاقَ لَفْظِ الْمُشْرِكِ يَتَنَاوَلُ عَبَدَةَ الْأَوْثَانِ ,

And this is because the christians have become polytheists due to their worshiping the Messiah along with Allah, and the magians are polytheists due to overwhelmingly associating partners with Allah, and the sabians are in 2 sects: The first one worships idols, the second one does not worship idols but they are polytheists due to other reasons. However, the application of the word “mushrik” (or polytheist) applies to those who worship idols.

فَلَمْ يُوجِبْ قوله تعالى : { فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ } إلَّا قَتْلَ عَبَدَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ دُونَ غَيْرِهِمْ , وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ : لَمَّا كَانَ مَعْنَى الشِّرْكِ مَوْجُودًا فِي مَقَالَاتِ هَذِهِ الْفِرَقِ مِنْ النَّصَارَى وَالْمَجُوسِ وَالصَّابِئِينَ فَقَدْ انْتَظَمَهُمْ اللَّفْظُ , وَلَوْلَا وُرُودُ آيَةِ التَّخْصِيصِ فِي أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ خُصُّوا مِنْ الْجُمْلَةِ , وَمَنْ عَدَاهُمْ مَحْمُولُونَ عَلَى حُكْمِ الْآيَةِ عَرَبًا كَانُوا أَوْ عَجَمًا . وَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفُوا فِي جَوَازِ إقْرَارِ الْمَجُوسِ بِالْجِزْيَةِ .

When His saying commands {War [with] the mushrikiin (9:5)} it refers to slaying the idol worshipers and not other than them. And others [people of knowledge] have said: When the meaning of shirk is exists in the creeds of these groups from the christians and the magians and the sabians, then the word [“mushrikiin”] HAS APPLIED on them, EVEN THOUGH the ayah that separates them into different categories, and separates the ahl al-kitab from the other mushrikiin is sent, and who ever belongs to them [mushrikiin], falls under the command of the verse, be he Arab or non-Arab. BUT they [the 2 differing groups of people of knowledge] DO NOT disagree over the implementation of the jizyah on the magians.

وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي ذَلِكَ أَخْبَارٌ , وَرَوَى سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ عَمْرٍو أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ مُجَالِدًا يَقُولُ : لَمْ يَكُنْ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يَأْخُذُ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ الْمَجُوسِ حَتَّى شَهِدَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ أَنَّ { رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَخَذَ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ مَجُوسِ هَجَرَ . }

And the same information has been narrated from the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. And Sufyan bin ‘Uyaynah has narrated on account of ‘Amr, he heard Mujalid say: ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab wasn’t ready to take jizyah from the magians [i.e., he wanted to execute them] UNTIL ‘Abd Ar-Rahman bin ‘Auf bore witness that {The Prophet sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, accepted the jizyah from the magians of Hajar}

وَرَوَى مَالِكٌ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ ذَكَرَ الْمَجُوسَ فَقَالَ : مَا أَدْرِي كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ فِي أَمْرِهِمْ , فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ : أَشْهَدُ لَسَمِعْت رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ : { سُنُّوا بِهِمْ سُنَّةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ } .

And Malik narrated on account of Ja’afar bin Muhammad who narrated on his father’s account, that ‘Umar mentioned the magians and said: “I don’t know how to deal with them”, then ‘Abd Ar-Rahman bin ‘Auf said, “I testify that I heard the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, saying: {Do with them as you do with the ahl al-kitab}.

وَرَوَى يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ عَنْ الْمَسْعُودِيِّ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَبِي مِجْلَزَ قَالَ : { كَتَبَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إلَى الْمُنْذِرِ أَنَّهُ مَنْ اسْتَقْبَلَ قِبْلَتَنَا وَصَلَّى صَلَاتَنَا وَأَكَلَ ذَبِيحَتَنَا فَذَلِكَ الْمُسْلِمُ الَّذِي لَهُ ذِمَّةُ اللَّهِ وَذِمَّةُ رَسُولِهِ وَمَنْ أَحَبَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الْمَجُوسِ فَهُوَ آمِنٌ وَمَنْ أَبَى فَعَلَيْهِ الْجِزْيَةُ . }

And Yahya bin Adam has narrated on account of Mas’oodiy, who narrated on account of Qatada, narrating on account of Abi Mijlaz, he said: {The Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, wrote to mundhir that whoever accepts our Qiblah and prays our salah and eats our slaughter [i.e., embrace Islam], such a person is Muslim, he is under Allah’s protection and His Messenger’s protection, and who ever likes this [i.e., accepts it] from the magians, he is safe, and who ever desists, on him is the [payment of] jizyah.}

وَرَوَى قَيْسُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ : { أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَتَبَ إلَى مَجُوسِ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَدْعُوهُمْ إلَى الْإِسْلَامِ , فَمَنْ أَسْلَمَ مِنْهُمْ قَبِلَ مِنْهُ , وَمَنْ أَبَى ضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْجِزْيَةُ , وَلَا تُؤْكَلُ لَهُمْ ذَبِيحَةٌ وَلَا تُنْكَحُ لَهُمْ امْرَأَةٌ . }

And Qays bin Muslim has narrated on account of Hasan bin Muhammad: {That the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, wrote to the magians of Bahrain, inviting them to Islam; and who ever became Muslim from them, he [the Prophet] accepted it from him, and whoever desisted, he was slapped with the jizyah, and their slaughter is not [permitted to be] eaten, nor their women [permitted to be] married.}

وَرَوَى الطَّحَاوِيُّ عَنْ بَكَّارَ بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ : حَدَّثَنَا عَوْفٌ قَالَ : كَتَبَ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ إلَى عَدِيِّ بْنِ أَرْطَاةَ : أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَاسْأَلْ الْحَسَنَ مَا مَنَعَ مَنْ قَبْلَنَا مِنْ الْأَئِمَّةِ أَنْ يَحُولُوا بَيْنَ الْمَجُوسِ وَبَيْنَ مَا يَجْمَعُونَ مِنْ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا يَجْمَعُهُنَّ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ ؟ فَسَأَلَهُ فَأَخْبَرَهُ { أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَبِلَ مِنْ مَجُوسِ الْبَحْرَيْنِ الْجِزْيَةَ , وَأَقَرَّهُمْ عَلَى مَجُوسِيَّتِهِمْ , وَعَامِلُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَى الْبَحْرَيْنِ الْعَلَاءُ بْنُ الْحَضْرَمِيِّ , وَفَعَلَهُ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَعُثْمَانُ } .

And Tahawiy has narrated through Bakkar bin ‘Qutaybah that he said: ‘Abd Ar-Rahman bin ‘Imran informed us: ‘Auf informed us and said: ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd Al-‘Aziiz wrote to ‘Adiyy bin Artah: Now then, ask Hasan what stopped our Imams from our predecessors [i.e., previous caliphs and senior companions] to permit between the magians and between those that they are grouped with, the women who are not grouped with any one other than them? He asked, and he informed :{That the Messenger, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, accepted the jizyah from the magians of Bahrain, and let them stay on their magian-ness, imposed it on ‘Alaa bin Hadramiy on that day of Bahrain, and after the Messenger, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and ‘Uthman did the same to him.}

وَرَوَى مَعْمَرُ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ : { أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَالَحَ أَهْلَ الْأَوْثَانِ عَلَى الْجِزْيَةِ إلَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ الْعَرَبِ . }

And Ma’amar has narrated on account of Zuhriy: {That the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, enacted a treaty to let the idolaters stay by paying the jizyah EXCEPT those of them who are Arabs}

وَرَوَى الزُّهْرِيُّ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ : { أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَخَذَ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ مَجُوسِ هَجَرَ }

And it has been narrated by Zuhriy on account of Sa’eed ibn Musayyeb: {That the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, took the jizyah from the magians of Hajar.}

, وَأَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ أَخَذَهَا مِنْ مَجُوسِ السَّوَادِ , وَأَنَّ عُثْمَانَ أَخَذَهَا مِنْ بَرْبَرَ . وَفِي هَذِهِ الْأَخْبَارِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَخَذَ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ الْمَجُوسِ , وَفِي بَعْضِهَا أَنَّهُ أَخَذَهَا مِنْ عَبَدَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْعَرَبِ , وَلَا نَعْلَمُ خِلَافًا بَيْنَ الْفُقَهَاءِ فِي جَوَازِ أَخْذِ الْجِزْيَةِ مِنْ  الْمَجُوسِ .

And ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab, took it [jizyah] from the magians of Sawad, and ‘Uthman took it from the Berbers. And in this is information that the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, took jizyah from the magians, and there is some [information] that he collected it from those nonArabs who worshiped idols. And we do not know of any disagreement between the [mujtahid] scholars regarding the acceptance of the collection of the jizyah from the magians.

وَقَدْ نَقَلَتْ الْأُمَّةُ أَخْذَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ مَجُوسِ السَّوَادِ , فَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ إنَّمَا أَخَذَهَا لِأَنَّ الْمَجُوسَ أَهْلُ كِتَابٍ ,

And the ummah has narrated that ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab collected the jizyah from the magians of Sawad, and there are people who say that it was collected because the magians are ahl al-kitab.

وَيَحْتَجُّ فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَا رَوَى سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ عَنْ نَصْرِ بْنِ عَاصِمٍ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ أَنَّ { النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبَا بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ أَخَذُوا الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ الْمَجُوسِ } ,

And it is debated in this topic due to what has been reported by Sufyan bin ‘Uyaynah, on account of Abi Sa’eed, on account of Nassr ibn ‘Aasem, on account of ‘Ali that: {The Prophet, sal Allahu, ‘alaihi wa sallam, and Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman collected the jizyah from the magians.}

وَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ : أَنَا أَعْلَمُ النَّاسِ بِهِمْ كَانُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ يَقْرَءُونَهُ وَأَهْلَ عِلْمٍ يَدْرُسُونَهُ فَنُزِعَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ صُدُورِهِمْ . وَقَدْ ذَكَرْنَا فِيمَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ الدَّلَالَةِ عَلَى أَنَّهُمْ لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ .

And ‘Ali said: I know of people in them, they were people of the book, they read it and those who knew, taught it and then it was removed from their chests. And we have discussed in what has preceded, the evidences that they are NOT from ahl al-kitab by the way of Quran and Sunnah.

وَأَمَّا مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ فِي ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ , فَإِنَّهُ إنْ صَحَّتْ الرِّوَايَةُ فَإِنَّ الْمُرَادَ أَنَّ أَسْلَافَهُمْ كَانُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ لِإِخْبَارِهِ بِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ نُزِعَ مِنْ صُدُورِهِمْ , فَإِذًا لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ . وَيَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُمْ لَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ مَا رُوِيَ فِي حَدِيثِ الْحَسَنِ بْن مُحَمَّدٍ أَنَّ { النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ فِي مَجُوسِ الْبَحْرَيْنِ : إنَّ مَنْ أَبَى مِنْهُمْ الْإِسْلَامَ ضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْجِزْيَةُ , وَلَا تُؤْكَلُ لَهُمْ ذَبِيحَةٌ , وَلَا تُنْكَحُ لَهُمْ امْرَأَةٌ } ,

And whatever has been narrated by ‘Ali in regards to this, that they are ahl al-kitab, then IF the narration is authentic [i.e., authentically traced back to ‘Ali] then the implication is to their former ones who were people of the book, this is due to his informing that it [the book] has been removed from their chests, then they are NOT ahl al-kitab in this book [Quran], and evidencing on this that they are not ahl al-kitab, is what has been narrated in the hadith of Hasan bin Muhammad, that :{The Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said in regards to the magians of Bahrain: Who ever amongst them desists Islam. He is slapped with the jizyah, and his slaughter is not to be eaten, and his women are not to be married.}

وَلَوْ كَانُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ لَجَازَ أَكْلُ ذَبَائِحِهِمْ , وَمُنَاكَحَةُ نِسَائِهِمْ ; لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى قَدْ أَبَاحَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ .

Even though it is allowed to eat the slaughter of the ahl al-kitab and marry their women because Allah Ta’ala has permitted this with the ahl al-kitab.

وَلَمَّا ثَبَتَ { أَخْذُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ الْمَجُوسِ } , وَلَيْسُوا أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ ثَبَتَ جَوَازُ أَخْذِهَا مِنْ سَائِرِ الْكُفَّارِ أَهْلَ كِتَابٍ كَانُوا أَوْ غَيْرَ أَهْلِ كِتَابٍ إلَّا عَبَدَةَ الْأَوْثَانِ مِنْ الْعَرَبِ ; لِأَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْهُمْ إلَّا الْإِسْلَامَ أَوْ السَّيْفَ , وَبِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى : { فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ }

And when it is proven {The Prophet sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam took jizyah from the magians} AND that they’re not ahl al-kitab – THEN the permission to take it [jizyah] from ALL the kuffaar is established, be they ahl al-kitab or not – EXCEPT the Arabs who worship idols, because the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, didn’t accept from them anything other than Islam or the sword [upon them]. And due to the Almighty’s saying: {then slay the polytheists wherever you find them}

وَهَذَا فِي عَبَدَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ مِنْ الْعَرَبِ ,

And this is in regards to the idolaters of the Arabs.

وَيَدُلُّ عَلَى جَوَازِ أَخْذِ الْجِزْيَةِ مِنْ سَائِرِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ سِوَى مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ حَدِيثُ عَلْقَمَةَ بْنِ مَرْثَدٍ عَنْ ابْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم { كَانَ إذَا بَعَثَ سَرِيَّةً قَالَ : إذَا لَقِيتُمْ عَدُوَّكُمْ مِنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَادْعُوهُمْ إلَى شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ أَبَوْا فَادْعُوهُمْ إلَى إعْطَاءِ الْجِزْيَةِ } . وَذَلِكَ عَامٌّ فِي سَائِرِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ , وَخَصَّصْنَا مِنْهُمْ مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ بِالْآيَةِ وَسِيرَةِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيهِمْ .

And the evidence that the jizyah can be taken [that is, those people won’t face the sword – imposing the jizyah on the kafirs is OBLIGATORY, as is evident in the case of the jews and christians, there are no two opinions that indeed the jizyah is imposed on them] from ALL mushrikiin [idol worshiper, or christian or jew or sabian or magian] except Arab idol worshipers – is the hadith of ‘Alqamah bin Marthad, on account of ibn Buraydah, on account of his father that the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, {When he sent Sariyyah, he said: When you meet your enemies amongst mushrikiin, then invite them to declare “There is no god except Allah and that Muhammad [sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] is the Messenger of Allah” and if they desist, then call them to the payment of the jizyah.} And this is common to all of the disbelievers, and we have stated the exception [proving it] from the ayah and the seerah of the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

[Some sections on fiqh technicalities relating to the time of charging the jizyah, amount to be charged, etc. have been snipped]

فَصْلٌ] الْجِزْيَةُ عُقُوبَةٌ لَهُمْ لِإِقَامَتِهِمْ عَلَى الْكُفْرِ]

إنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ مِنْ الْمُلْحِدِينَ : كَيْفَ جَازَ إقْرَارُ الْكُفَّارِ عَلَى كُفْرِهِمْ بِأَدَاءِ الْجِزْيَةِ بَدَلًا مِنْ الْإِسْلَامِ ؟

 قِيلَ لَهُ : لَيْسَ أَخْذُ الْجِزْيَةِ مِنْهُمْ رِضًا بِكُفْرِهِمْ , وَلَا إبَاحَةً لِبَقَائِهِمْ عَلَى شِرْكِهِمْ , وَإِنَّمَا الْجِزْيَةُ عُقُوبَةٌ لَهُمْ لِإِقَامَتِهِمْ عَلَى الْكُفْرِ , وَتَبْقِيَتِهِمْ عَلَى كُفْرِهِمْ بِالْجِزْيَةِ كَهِيَ لَوْ تَرَكْنَاهُمْ بِغَيْرِ جِزْيَةٍ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمْ , إذْ لَيْسَ فِي الْعَقْلِ إيجَابُ قَتْلِهِمْ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَمَا جَازَ أَنْ يُبْقِيَ اللَّهُ كَافِرًا طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ , فَإِذَا بَقَّاهُمْ لِعُقُوبَةٍ يُعَاقِبُهُمْ بِهَا مَعَ التَّبْقِيَةِ اسْتِدْعَاءً لَهُمْ إلَى التَّوْبَةِ مِنْ كُفْرِهِمْ , وَاسْتِمَالَةً لَهُمْ إلَى الْإِيمَانِ لَمْ يَكُنْ مُمْتَنِعًا إمْهَالُهُ إيَّاهُمْ إذْ كَانَ فِي عِلْمِ اللَّهِ أَنَّ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ , وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ مِنْ نَسْلِهِ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاَللَّهِ , فَكَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ أَعْظَمُ الْمَصْلَحَةِ مَعَ مَا لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ فِيهَا مِنْ الرِّفْقِ وَالْمَنْفَعَةِ ; فَلَيْسَ إذًا فِي إقْرَارِهِمْ عَلَى الْكُفْرِ , وَتَرْكِ قَتْلِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ جِزْيَةٍ مَا يُوجِبُ الرِّضَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ , وَلَا الْإِبَاحَةَ لِاعْتِقَادِهِمْ , وَشِرْكِهِمْ , فَكَذَلِكَ إمْهَالُهُمْ بِالْجِزْيَةِ جَائِزٌ فِي الْعَقْلِ إذْ لَيْسَ فِيهِ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ تَعْجِيلِ بَعْضِ عِقَابِهِمْ الْمُسْتَحَقِّ بِكُفْرِهِمْ , وَهُوَ مَا يَلْحَقُهُمْ مِنْ الذُّلِّ وَالصَّغَارِ بِأَدَائِهَا

[Section] – The jizyah is a punishment for their staying upon kufr.

If someone from the mulhidiin (atheists/agnostics) says (i.e., asks): How can it be authorized for the kuffaar to be permitted to stay upon their kufr, [making] the payment of the jizyah being the substitute for [converting] to Islam?

We say to him: The charging of jizyah to them is NOT agreement upon their kufr, neither is it a permission for them to stay upon their shirk. But instead, the jizyah is penalizing them for staying upon kufr. And if letting them stay on their kufr alongside the [payment of] jizyah is the same as us leaving them without taking jizyah from them, the obligation to kill them [i.e., going to jihad against them] is not sensible because if it was such, then Allah would have permitted to let them stay kafir, just like that. So keeping them with the chastisement is for punishing them by it, while keeping the channel open to call them to repent from their kufr (infidelity) and to mould them towards belief [i.e., Islam], not for inclining towards softness to them. It is in Allah’s knowledge who amongst them will believe, and who amongst whose offspring will believe in Allah. Therein lies in it this great benefit for Muslims which includes gracefulness [to Muslims] and [securing their, i.e., Muslims’] interests. It is [definitely] NOT acknowledgement of kufr (disbelief). And abstaining from their [indiscriminate] killing [in Islamically sanctioned, jihad] without [charging them any] jizyah [at all] (i.e., letting them stay by paying the jizyah) does not necessitate [i.e., does not necessarily logically imply] agreement with their kufr, nor permission for [them to stay on] their beliefs and their paganism. Thus, granting them respite in lieu of the jizyah is acceptable to the mind, there is NOT in it any more than speeding up of some of the punishment that they deserve due to their kufr; and it is NOT to spare them from disgrace and debasement by its payment.

Footnote: Jihad, defensive or offensive, is not something individuals can undertake at their own discretion, working out of a garage, as some jahils have done, greatly hurting the cause of Islam and Muslims. It is not allowed for individual Muslims or groups of Muslims to put themselves or other Muslims’ life, property or dignity into jeopardy, like by doing stupid actions such as have been exhibited by the juhhaal, which have greatly hurt the cause of Islam and so many Muslims have faced so many social, political and other inconveniences due to it. It is declared by a Muslim imam head of state based on the principles of the Shari’ah, in the strategic interests of Islam and Muslims, and Muslims must follow the rules of the Shari’ah, helping the waliy al-amr. It is haram to unjustly hurt someone, even kafirs. Muslims in these times must firstly educate their leaders to charge the jizyah to the kuffaar of Muslim nations most importantly, as this is more immediately pertinent.

Alhamdulillah, by now, it must be clear even to a blind man that christians and jews are kafirs. They are NOT believers in Allah (God), and the last day, for a multitude of reasons. 

Being charged the jizyah is the greatest proof that they are kafirs. 

They are charged the jizyah because they are kafirs. Jizyah is not slapped onto Muslims according to the Shari’ah, for it is an insult from Allah onto the kuffaar. 

May Allah completely and utterly disgrace the hypocrites who seek to misinform and misguide Muslims trying to lead them to think that their kafir brothers and sisters, the christians and jews, are not kafirs. May Allah destroy their duniya and their hereafter, and raise them with their beloved christians and jews on the day of judgment.

And Allah alone grants success.



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