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From Tafsiir ibn Kathiir – On How The Prince of Believers, The Pride of Rasul-Allah ﷺ – ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab – dealt with the human-worshiping fools, the people of the book, the christians and jews.

11 Mar

As-Salamu ‘Alaikum

Munafiq-sufi pretending to be Muslim scholar, in order to appease his kafir masters, lies and states that paying the jizyah is only for being kafir, but the humiliation is for their junta’s former antagonism against Islam.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:

 (اقتدوا بالذين من بعدي : أبو بكر وعمر (رضي اللَّه عَنهما

مصنف ابن أبي شيبة ؛ مسند أحمد بن حنبل

Translation of meaning: Follow those after me: Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.

(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal; & other collections)

and he ﷺ said:

ما طلعت الشمس على رجل خير من عمر

جامع الترمذي

Translation of meaning: The sun hasn’t risen on a person better than ‘Umar.

(Jaami’ At-Tirmidhi, & other collections)

and ﷺ he said:

لو كان بعدي نبي لكان عمر بن الخطاب

جامع الترمذي ؛ مسند أحمد بن حنبل

Translation of meaning: If there were to be a prophet after me, it would have been ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab.

(Jaami’ At-Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal; & other collections)

This is the verse of jizyah:

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ

Translation of meaning: War [against] the people who do not believe in Allah nor the last day, nor hold that as forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and [those that] take not as their religion the religion of truth (Islam) from those who have been given a book – until they pay the jizya with their hands, and they’re humiliated. [Holy Quran 9:29]

This is what Tafsiir ibn Kathiir says under the exegesis for this verse:

وقوله : ( حتى يعطوا الجزية ) أي : إن لم يسلموا ، ( عن يد ) أي : عن قهر لهم وغلبة ، ( وهم صاغرون ) أي : ذليلون حقيرون مهانون . فلهذا لا يجوز إعزاز أهل الذمة ولا رفعهم على المسلمين ، بل هم أذلاء صغرة أشقياء ، كما جاء في صحيح مسلم ، عن أبي هريرة – رضي الله عنه – أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال : لا تبدءوا اليهود والنصارى بالسلام ، وإذا لقيتم أحدهم في طريق فاضطروه إلى أضيقه .

ولهذا اشترط عليهم أمير المؤمنين عمر بن الخطاب – رضي الله عنه – تلك الشروط المعروفة في إذلالهم وتصغيرهم وتحقيرهم ، وذلك مما رواه الأئمة الحفاظ ، من رواية عبد الرحمن بن غنم الأشعري قال : كتبت لعمر بن الخطاب – رضي الله عنه – حين صالح نصارى من أهل الشام :

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ، هذا كتاب لعبد الله عمر أمير المؤمنين من نصارى مدينة كذا وكذا ، إنكم لما قدمتم علينا سألناكم الأمان لأنفسنا وذرارينا وأموالنا وأهل ملتنا وشرطنا لكم على أنفسنا ألا نحدث في مدينتنا ولا فيما حولها ديرا ولا كنيسة ، ولا قلاية ولا صومعة راهب ، ولا نجدد ما خرب منها ، ولا نحيي منها ما كان خطط المسلمين ، وألا نمنع كنائسنا أن ينزلها أحد من المسلمين في ليل ولا نهار ، وأن نوسع أبوابها للمارة وابن السبيل ، وأن ينزل من مر بنا من المسلمين ثلاثة أيام نطعمهم ، ولا نئوي في كنائسنا ولا منازلنا جاسوسا ، ولا نكتم غشا للمسلمين ، ولا نعلم أولادنا القرآن ، ولا نظهر شركا ، ولا ندعو إليه أحدا ؛ ولا نمنع أحدا من ذوي قرابتنا الدخول في الإسلام إن أرادوه ، وأن نوقر المسلمين ، وأن نقوم لهم من مجالسنا إن أرادوا الجلوس ، ولا نتشبه بهم في شيء من ملابسهم ، في قلنسوة ، ولا عمامة ، ولا نعلين ، ولا فرق شعر ، ولا نتكلم بكلامهم ، ولا نكتني بكناهم ، ولا نركب السروج ، ولا نتقلد السيوف ، ولا نتخذ شيئا من السلاح ، ولا نحمله معنا ، ولا ننقش خواتيمنا بالعربية ، ولا نبيع الخمور ، وأن نجز مقاديم رءوسنا ، وأن نلزم زينا حيثما كنا ، وأن نشد الزنانير على أوساطنا ، وألا نظهر الصليب على كنائسنا ، وألا نظهر صلبنا ولا كتبنا في شيء من طرق المسلمين ولا أسواقهم ، ولا نضرب نواقيسنا في كنائسنا إلا ضربا خفيا ، وألا نرفع أصواتنا بالقراءة في كنائسنا في شيء من حضرة المسلمين ، ولا نخرج شعانين ولا باعوثا ، ولا نرفع أصواتنا مع موتانا ، ولا نظهر النيران معهم في شيء من طرق المسلمين ولا أسواقهم ، ولا نجاورهم بموتانا ، ولا نتخذ من الرقيق ما جرى عليه سهام المسلمين ، وأن نرشد المسلمين ، ولا نطلع عليهم في منازلهم .

قال : فلما أتيت عمر بالكتاب ، زاد فيه : ولا نضرب أحدا من المسلمين ، شرطنا لكم ذلك على أنفسنا وأهل ملتنا ، وقبلنا عليه الأمان ، فإن نحن خالفنا في شيء مما شرطناه لكم ووظفنا على أنفسنا ، فلا ذمة لنا ، وقد حل لكم منا ما يحل من أهل المعاندة والشقاق .

His [Allah’s] saying: “Until they pay jizyah”, that is, if they don’t become Muslims, “with their hands,” that is, under suppression towards them and while overwhelmed. “and they’re humiliated” that is, lowly, despicable and degraded. For this reason, it is not allowed to respect those who pay jizyah, or to honor them over Muslims. Rather, they are [kept] lowly, belittled and miserable, as it was narrated in Sahiih Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah:  “Do not initiate the salaam greeting with the jews or christians, and if you meet them in the street, then force them to take the narrowest path”. Moreover, it was for this reason that the Prince of the Believers, ^Umar ibn Al-Khaţţaab, may Allah reward him, put the well known conditions on them to keep them low, belittled and despicable. This is among what the [Imams of ĥadith mastery] narrated through Abu-r-Rahmaan ibn Ghanm Al-Ash’ariy. He said:

<<I wrote to ^Umar ibn Al-Khaţţaab, may Allah reward him, when he made a peace agreement with the people of Levant: In the name of Allah, the who is Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a letter to the absolute slave of Allah, ‘Umar, the Prince of the Believers, from the christians of city so and so: [The christians wrote:]

“Verily, when you came to us we asked you for safety for our selves, our offspring, our property and the people of our religion, and we put as conditions upon ourselves:

not to build a new closter, church, spire or monk’s cell; and not renew what has been ruined of such buildings; and not rejuvenate of them what is in Muslim cities; and not prevent any Muslim from entering any of our churches, night or day; and to widen our doors for those [Muslims] who pass by as travelers; and to receive any Muslim that passes by us for three days and feed them; and not give shelter to a spy in our churches or houses; and we do not hide any intention to cheat the Muslims; and not to teach our children the Quran; and not show idolatry openly; and not call anyone to it; and not prevent any of those close to us from entering Islam, if they want; and to revere the Muslims and stand up for them from our seats if they want to sit; and not to imitate their way of dress, in terms of hats or turbans or sandals or hairstyle or speech or using their kunyahs [an alias constructed as “father of so and so” e.g. “Father of Muhammad”, “Father of Maryam” etc.] and not to  ride on saddles, and not to wear swords, and not to take anything as weapons, and not to carry them with us, and not to inscribe our stamps with Arabic, and not to sell wine; and to cut our forelocks short, and to stick to our dress code wherever we are, and to tie ropes around our waists; and not to show the cross on our churches; and not to show our crosses or books in any of the streets of the Muslims or their markets; and not to ring our bells in our churches except secretly; and not to raise our voices in reciting in our churches in any Muslim area; and not to celebrate the ceremonies of easter and palm Sunday in public; and not to raise our voices with our dead; and not to show any fires accompanying the dead in any Muslim street or market; and not to bury our dead in their neighborhoods; and not to take slaves that are owned by Muslims; and to give [street] directions to Muslims who need it ; and not to peek at them in their houses.”

 [‘Abdu-r-Rahmaan ibn Ghanm Al-Ash’ariy] said: “I came to ‘Umar with the letter, and he added to it: “and not to hit any Muslim. We have put this [all] as a condition to you upon ourselves and the people of our religion, and we have accepted safety based on it, so if we breached any of the conditions we have put upon ourselves to you, then we have no sanctity, and it is permitted to you to do to us what is permitted towards the people that show stubbornness and dissension.”>> 

———————————————————————–

The mujtahid scholars of the 4 schools of Islam, the Hanafis, the Shafi’iys, the Hanbalis and the Malikis have all unanimously ruled on the same conditions for kafirs living in a Muslim state. The humiliation is indeed for being kafir, as it is the absolute worst of all crimes and sins.

Also see this post on the topic of jizyah.

And Allah alone grants success.

 

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