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Verse 60:8 – Rescuing Muslims from the fallacies of hypocrite scholars

14 Aug

As-Salamu ‘Alaykum

Verse 8 of Surah Al-Mumtahinah is a verse that hypocrites pretending to be Muslim scholars often cite to justify their loving relationships with their kafir masters and they have misled scores of innocent Muslims by their debauchery.

Our Master Rasulullah ﷺ has said that he fears for his ummah the most from the hypocrites who argue using the Quran giving wrong interpretations and misguiding people.

أَنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ ثَلَاثٌ : جِدَالُ مُنَافِقٍ بِالْقُرْآنِ ، وَزَلَّةُ عَالِمٍ ، وَدُنْيَا تَقْطَعُ أَعْنَاقَكُمْ

The greatest fear that I have for you are three: The argumentation of a hypocrite using the Quran, the blunder of a scholar, and duniya cutting your necks.

[Hadiith from Dar Qutniy, and other compilations]

These are the verses 8 & 9 of Surah Al-Mumtahinah

لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ

Translation of meaning: Allah does not forbid you from those [infidels] who do not fight you in religion and do not expel you from your homes that you treat them kindly and be upright towards them; for indeed the upright are dear to Allah. [Holy Quran 60:8]

إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Translation of meaning: Allah only forbids you from those [infidels] who fight you in religion and expel you from your homes or aid in expelling you, that you bear affinities with them; and whoever holds friendships with them then they are transgressors. [Holy Quran 60:9]

First we shall present a summary case of the interpretational rulings relating to the verse, then as evidence, present the tafsiirs for them, from classical exegetes, as well as rulings of jurists.

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The summary case:

1) Justice is not abrogated. A Muslim must uphold justice in all dealings and be honorable with any Shari’ah-permitted contracts he enters into, be it with Muslims or kafirs.

2 a) Kind treatment and NON-obligatory charities are permitted from Muslims towards dhimmis, the kafir citizens of a Muslim state who dutifully bow their heads and pay the jizyah. There are no dhimmies in these times.

2 b) Kind treatment of harbiy kafirs is abrogated. Any kafir who is not a dhimmi is a harbiy.

3) Friendships and affinities are forbidden towards ALL kafirs, whether dhimmi or harbiy. 

4) There is a BIG DIFFERENCE between

upholding justice and dealing with people evenhandedly;

– mere gentle treatment; and

friendships and affinities

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 Tafsiir Al-Jalalayn (Imams Jalaluddin Al-Mahalli and Jalaluddin as-Suyuti)

تفسير- { لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم } من الكفار { في الدين ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أن تبروهم } بدل اشتمال من الذين { وتقسطوا } تقضوا { إليهم } بالقسط أي بالعدل وهذا قبل الأمر بجهادهم { إن الله يحب المقسطين } العادلين

تفسير الجلالين

 {Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you} [i.e.,] from the kuffaar {in religion and do not expel you from your homes that you treat them kindly} ‘treat them kindly’ is a replacement to the inclusion of ‘those’ [mentioned in the starting] {and be upright} [i.e.,] spend {towards them} [i.e.,] with fairness, that is with justice, and this is before the command to go to jihad with them {for indeed, the upright are dear to Allah} [i.e.,] the just.

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Zaad Al-Masiir of Imam ‘Abd Ar-Rahman bin ‘Ali bin Muhammad Al-Jawziy:

قوله تعالى لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم في الدين اختلفوا فيمن نزلت على خمسة أقوال

أحدها أنها في أسماء بنت أبي بكر وذلك أن أمها قتيلة بنت عبد العزى قدمت عليها المدينة بهدايا فلم تقبل هداياها ولم تدخلها منزلها فسألت لها عائشة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فنزلت هذه الآية فأمرها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أن تدخلها منزلها وتقبل هديتها وتكرمها وتحسن إليها قاله عبد الله بن الزبير

والثاني أنها نزلت في خزاعة وبني مدلج وكانوا صالحوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم على أن لا يقاتلوه ولا يعينوا عليه أحدا قاله ابن عباس وروي عن الحسن البصري أنها نزلت في خزاعة وبني الحارث بن عبد مناف وكان بينهم وبين رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عهد فداموا على الوفاء به

والثالث نزلت في قوم من بني هاشم منهم العباس قاله عطية العوفي ومرة

والرابع أنها عامة في جميع الكفار وهي منسوخة بقوله تعالى فاقتلوا المشركين حيث وجدتموهم التوبة (5) قاله قتادة

والخامس نزلت في النساء والصبيان حكاه الزجاج

قال المفسرون وهذه الآية رخصة في صلة الذين لم ينصبوا الحرب للمسلمين وجواز برهم وإن كانت الموالاة منقطعة منهم
قوله تعالى ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أي من مكة أن تبروهم وتقسطوا إليهم أي تعاملوهم بالعدل فيما بينكم وبينهم

زاد المسير في علم التفسير

 The Almighty’s saying “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you”, there are five different sayings [i.e. opinions of sahaba / tabi’een] regarding its revelation:

The first of them is in regards to Asma bint Abu Bakr, and this is for when her mother qutaylah bint ‘abd-‘uzza came to her in Madinah with gifts, and she did not accept her [the mother’s] gifts and did not let her in into her house; then ‘Aisha, radzi Allahu ‘anha, asked the Messenger of Allah, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, regarding her [Asma], and this verse was revealed, and the Messenger of Allah, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, commanded her [Asma] to let her [the mother] in her home and accept her gifts and to be hospitable and gentle to her. ‘Abd-Allah bin Zubayr says this.

The second is that it was revealed in relation to khuza’ah and bani midlaj (two tribes) and they had a treaty with Rasul-Allah, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, that they shall not war against the Prophet or aid others against him; and this is said by Ibn ‘Abbas. And it is narrated by Hasan Al-Basri that it was revealed in relation to khuza’ah and bani al-harith bin ‘abd-manaf, and there was a pact between them and Rasul-Allah, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and they continued complying with it.

The third: it was revealed in regards to a people from Bani Hashim, Al-Abbas was from them. This is said by ‘Atiyyah Al-‘Aufi and Murrah.

The fourth is that it is general in regards to all kafirs and it is abrogated by The Almighty’s saying “Then slay the idolaters wherever you find them” [At-Taubah, verse 5]. This is said by Qatadah.

The fifth: it was revealed in relation to women and children. This is relayed by Az-Zajjaj.

The exegetes have said that this verse is a dispensation towards those relations who are not engaged in war with Muslims, and a permission to be kind/charitable towards them even though friendships/affinities are forbidden from them [i.e., it is permitted to be kind towards them without treating them at par to one’s Muslim brothers and sisters IF they are dhimmis].

The Almighty’s saying “and do not expel you from your homes” means from Makkah “that you treat them kindly and be upright towards them” means that you deal with each other with justice.

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At-Tafsiir Al-Kabiir Mafatiih Al-Ghayb of Imam Fakhr Ad-Diin Ar-Razi

اختلفوا في المراد من {الذين لم يقاتلوكم} فالأكثرون على أنهم أهل العهد الذين عاهدوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على ترك القتال، والمظاهرة في العداوة، وهم خزاعة كانوا عاهدوا الرسول على أن لا يقاتلوه ولا يخرجوه، فأمر الرسول عليه السلام بالبر والوفاء إلى مدة أجلهم، وهذا قول ابن عباس والمقاتلين والكلبي، وقال مجاهد: الذين آمنوا بمكة ولم يهاجروا، وقيل: هم النساء والصبيان، وعن عبد الله بن الزبير: أنها نزلت في أسماء بنت أبي بكر قدمت أمها فتيلة عليها وهي مشركة بهدايا، فلم تقبلها ولم تأذن لها بالدخول، فأمرها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن تدخلها وتقبل منها وتكرمها وتحسن إليها، وعن ابن عباس: أنهم قوم من بني هاشم منهم العباس أخرجوا يوم بدر كرها، وعن الحسن: أن المسلمين استأمروا رسول الله في أقربائهم من المشركين أن يصلوهم، فأنزل الله تعالى هذه الآية، وقيل الآية في المشركين، وقال قتادة نسختها آية القتال.

وقوله: {أن تبروهم} بدل من {الذين لم يقاتلوكم} وكذلك {أن تولوهم} بدل من {الذين قاتلوكم} والمعنى: لا ينهاكم عن مبرة هؤلاء، وإنما ينهاكم عن تولي هؤلاء، وهذا رحمة لهم لشدتهم في العداوة، وقال أهل التأويل: هذه الآية تدل على جواز البر بين المشركين والمسلمين، وإن كانت الموالاة منقطعة، وقوله تعالى: {وتقسطوا إليهم} قال ابن عباس يريد بالصلة وغيرها {إن الله يحب المقسطين} يريد أهل البر والتواصل، وقال مقاتل: أن توفوا لهم بعهدهم وتعدلوا، ثم ذكر من الذين ينهاهم عن صلتهم فقال: {إنما ينهاكم الله عن الذين قاتلوكم فى الدين} {أن تولوهم} وفيه لطيفة: وهي أنه يؤكد قوله تعالى: {لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم} تفسير الكبير

التفسير الكبير – مفاتيح الغيب

There is a difference of opinion on who {those who do not fight you} pertains to; the bulk majority [people of knowledge] are upon [the understanding that] it refers to the people who the Prophet of Allah, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, took a covenant with in regards to ceasing of wars, not aiding the enemy [of Muslims], and they are the people of khuza’ah (a tribe), they entered into a covenant with the Messenger of Allah that they will not war against him nor expel [Muslims from Makkah]; and the Mesenger, ‘alaihis salam, was commanded to treat them gently and honor the covenant until it was due, and this is the saying of Ibn ‘Abbas and the two Muqatils [Muqatil bin Hayyan and Muqatil bin Sulayman] and Kalbi. And Mujahid said: The people who believed [i.e., Muslims] in Makkah but did not migrate [to Madinah]. And it is [also] said: It refers to women and children. And ‘Abd-Allah bin Zubayr narrates that it was revealed in regards to Asma bint Abi Bakr, her mother qutaylah who was an idolater, came with some gifts to visit her, and she did not let her in nor accepted her gifts. So the Prophet, sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, commanded her to let her [the mother] in, and accept her gifts, and to be hospitable to her. It is also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas: They are a people from Bani Hashim whom ‘Abbas forcibly expelled on the day of Badr. And it is reported on the authority of Hasan: [Some] Muslims sought the Messenger of Allah to command regarding [how to deal with] their idolater relatives who came to them. And Allah revealed this verse. And it is said this verse is in relation to the idolaters. And Qatadah said the verse of war abrogated it.

And His saying {that you treat them kindly} is substituted to the inclusion of [what is mentioned in the starting as] {those who do not fight you} and likewise {that you bear affinities with them} is substituted to the inclusion of {those who fight you} and the meaning is: You are not forbidden from kindness towards them, but you are forbidden from friendships/affinities towards them, and this is a mercy unto them as the enmity to them is very staunch. And the people of interpretation have said: This verse is a evidence for evenhanded coexistence between Muslims and infidels, despite affinities/friendships being forbidden. And The Almighty’s saying {And be upright towards them} Ibn ‘Abbas said it is regarding [familial] relations and so on; {for indeed, the upright are dear to Allah} is in regards to the people of kindness and generosity. And Muqatil said: That you honor your contracts with them and be just with them. Then He [Allah] mentioned the people with whom relationships are forbidden, for He said {Verily, Allah forbids you from those who fight you in religion} {that you bear affinities with them} and there is a subtlety in it: and that is that it strengthens His Saying {Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you}.

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The Maliki jurist Qadhi Abu Bakr Ibn Al-‘Arabi says in his Ahkam Al-Quran:

قوله تعالى : { وتقسطوا إليهم } أي تعطوهم قسطا من أموالكم [ على وجه الصلة ] ، وليس يريد به من العدل ; فإن العدل واجب فيمن قاتل وفيمن لم يقاتل

استدل به بعض من تعقد عليه الخناصر على وجوب نفقة الابن المسلم على أبيه الكافر ، وهذه وهلة عظيمة ; فإن الإذن في الشيء أو ترك النهي عنه لا يدل على وجوبه ، إنما يعطيك الإباحة خاصة . وقد بينا أن إسماعيل بن إسحاق القاضي دخل عليه ذمي فأكرمه ، فوجد عليه الحاضرون ، فتلا هذه الآية عليهم

أحكام القرآن لابن العربي

 The Almighty’s saying: {And be upright towards them} means giving them a portion from your wealth [on the grounds of relationships], and it does not imply justice; as justice is obligatory regardless if they are at war or not at war.

Some people have considered it as significant evidence on the obligation for a Muslim son to provide financial/material support to a kafir father [or parents]; and this is a big worry; for the mere permission to do something or lifting up the prohibition of it does NOT imply an obligation. It does not endorse anything other than A MERE PERMISSION. And we have made clear regarding Isma’iil bin Is-haq, the qadzi; a dhimmi came to him and he [Isma’iil] was hospitable to him [the dhimmi]; and the other [Muslim] people present found it disturbing; so he [Isma’iil] read this verse to them.

This tafsiir is focused on the Maliki usul of fiqh and the rulings extracted from the Quran.

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At-Tafseeraat Al-Ahmadiyyah[1] fi Bayan Al-Aayaat Ash-Shar’iyyah of Shaykh Ahmad As-Siddiiqiy (popularly known as Mulla Jiiwan)

والحاصل ان الاية الاولی ان کانت فی الذمی والثانية فی الحربی کما هوا لظاهر وعليه الاكثرون کان دالا علی جواز الاحسان الی الذمی دون الحربی، ولهذ اتمسك صاحب الهداية فی باب الوصية ان الوصية للذمی جائزة دون الحربی لانه نوع احسان و لهذا المعنی قال فی باب الزكوٰة ان الصدقة النافلة يجوز اعطاءها للذمی دون الحربی لانا ما نهينا عن البر في حقهم بخلاف الزكوة لانها لا يجوز الا لمسلم لحديث معاذ خذها من اغنيائهم وردها الى فقراءهم

التفسيرات الأحمدية في بيان الآيات الشرعية

The conclusion is that the first verse [verse 60:8] is in relation to the dhimmi and the second one [verse 60:9] is in relation to the harbiy, as this is what is apparent and upon this [ruling] are the bulk majority [of classical scholars][2], the verses are evidence that kind treatment of a dhimmi [kafir] is permitted as opposed to a harbiy [kafir]. Due to this, the author of Hidaya took the position in the book on bequeathing that bequeathing to a dhimmi is permitted as opposed to a harbiy as this is a form of kind treatment and due to this meaning, he said in the book on zakat that voluntary charities are permitted to be given to a dhimmi and not to a harbiy as we are not forbidden from [voluntary] charity to them as opposed to zakat because that is not permitted to be given to anyone except Muslim due to the hadiith of Mu’adh ‘take it from their rich and give it to their poor’.

[1] Please do not be confused into thinking that this has any relation to the qadianis who like to call themselves as ‘ahmadiyyah muslims’ or ‘the ahmadiyyah sect’. Those people are devil-worshipers who have nothing to do with Islam or Muslims. The tafsiir quoted is of Shaykh Ahmad As-Siddiiqiy, a legendary and world famous Hanafi jurist from the Indian subcontinent, who passed into Allah’s Mercy in the year 1130 Hijri. The tafsiir is focused on the foundational principles of fiqh and the fiqh rulings extracted from the Quran. The first page of the tafsiir published in Kazan, Russia in 1904, and the relevant pages containing the verses and their exegeses are attached below.
[2] As we have seen from the Maliki rulings presented above, this is indeed the case. The Shafi’iy and Hanbali madhhab are no different.

Shaykh Ahmad has very concisely and beautifully summed up the rulings extracted from these two verses.

For more information on who are the dhimmies and who are the harbiys, click here; and for information on the jizyah, click here; for another post on Muslim-kafir interaction, click here.

w-Allahu waliyy-ut-tawfiiq.

Shaykh Ahmad As-Siddiiqiy

First page of the Tafsiir of the Hanafi Shaykh Ahmad As-Siddiiqiy (d. 1130 AH), stating his brief biography.
Kazan, Russia – 1904

Kindness permitted to dhimmi kafirs but not to harbiy kafirs

Kindness permitted to dhimmi kafirs but not to harbiy kafirs

Kindness permitted to dhimmi kafirs but not to harbiy kafirs

Kindness permitted to dhimmi kafirs but not to harbiy kafirs

 

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2 responses to “Verse 60:8 – Rescuing Muslims from the fallacies of hypocrite scholars

  1. Safiuddin Qadri

    September 18, 2013 at 11:45 am

    A perrenialism supporter claimed:

    “The word ‘treat them kindly’ used in this verse is derived from ‘birr’, which scholars define as ‘expansiveness in good’ or ‘every sort of good’. [Khadimi, Bariqa Mahmudiyya Sharh Tariqa Muhammadiyya] It is interesting that the same word is used for treatment of one’s parents, ‘birr al-walidayn’.
    Some commentators of the verse explain ‘birr’ as showing ‘ihsan’. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]
    Imam Nasafi comments on ‘birr’ in this verse, saying, “That you honor them and show them ‘ihsan’, in both word and deed.” [Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqa’iq al-Ta’wil] ” (Khan and Faraz Rabbani)

    However, when one looks in the tafsir Madarik al-Tanzil, it states:

    { لاَّ يَنْهَـٰكُمُ ٱللَّهُ عَنِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَـٰتِلُوكُمْ فِى ٱلدّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مّن دِيَـٰرِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ } تكرموهم وتحسنوا إليهم قولاً وفعلاً. ومحل { أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ } جر على البدل من { ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَـٰتِلُوكُمْ } وهو بدل اشتمال والتقدير عن بر الذين { وَتُقْسِطُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ } وتقضوا إليهم بالقسط ولا تظلموهم، وإذا نهى عن الظلم في حق المشرك فكيف في حق المسلم { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُقْسِطِينَ إِنَّمَا يَنْهَـٰكُمُ ٱللَّهُ عَنِ ٱلَّذِينَ قَـٰتَلُوكُمْ فِى ٱلدّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مّن دِيَـٰرِكُمْ وَظَـٰهَرُواْ عَلَىٰ إِخْرٰجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ } هو بدل من { ٱلَّذِينَ قَـٰتَلُوكُمْ } والمعنى لا ينهاكم عن مبرة هؤلاء وإنما ينهاكم عن تولي هؤلاء { وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ } منكم { فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ } حيث وضعوا التولي غير موضعه.

    The perennialist mistranslated تكرموهم وتحسنوا . The real meaning is be kind and show ihsan

     
    • 'Abd-Allah al-Mujaddidi al-Naqshbandi

      October 18, 2013 at 5:03 pm

      All the self-hating-islamites lie and play with the usul of the Islamic sciences in their bid to mislead Muslims.

      The self-hating-islamites will never be so honest to talk about the ahkam (rulings) derived from a verse by the sahaba and the mujtahid imams of the ummah and if the hukm (ruling) is generic or specific, or abrogated or extant.

      Rather, they will deliberately lie against the Quran and Hadiith and state just any twisted ruling or interpretation that suits the fancies of their infidel brothers and sisters.

      See the hadiith quoted right at the beginning of the post, where our Master Rasulullah ﷺ has said that he fears greatly for his beloved ummah, the argumentation of a hypocrite using the Quran.

      Do note that a zindiiq is ruled the same as a hypocrite by the jurists of Islam. A zindiiq is a fool who is under the illusion that he is a Muslim, but in actual reality he has beliefs and convictions that squarely render him a kafir.

      The self-hating-islamites are people who are in awe of their kafir masters and are so ashamed and remorseful of [supposedly] being Muslim that they feel the need to twist the principles and the image of Islam in order to appeal to the sensibilities of their kafir masters. They feel the need to filter Islam through or change it to suit the ethos and values of their kuffaar brothers and sisters. Such people are morally blind and bankrupt and they can only see the world and the hereafter through the darkened but worldly-wealth-studded lenses their kafir masters handed them. Such people are nothing but zanaadiq and hypocrites, regardless of how high and mighty they claim to be or how many people they manage to fool. The dajjal too shall have a very large following!

      Merely dropping the names of some books and the classical masters [and then attributing lies to them and/or misrepresenting their positions and/or misquoting their statements] might charm the uninformed, but those who can read and write and know better and won’t fall for the tricks of these dajjals.

      In the case of this particular verse, 60:8, the ruling derived from it applies towards the ahl adh-dhimmah (dhimmies), and is NOT generic to all kafirs. There are no dhimmies in these times.

      The self-hating-islamites deliberately miss this very important point of usul.

       

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