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Verses 5:82 & 83 – Verse 5:83 proves that only a chronic jahil or a deliberate hypocrite will propagate that 5:82 is an unconditional admiration of all christians

20 Aug

As-Salamu ‘Alaikum

These are verses 82 and 83 of Surah Al-Maaidah (5):

لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا ۖ وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُم مَّوَدَّةً لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَىٰ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰ أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۖ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا آمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ

Translation of meaning: Indeed, you shall find the jews and the idolators as the staunchest in enmity to the believers [i.e., Muslims]; and indeed, the closest in affinity to the believers you shall find those who said “we’re christians”; this is because they have priests and ascetics amongst them and they are not arrogant.

And when they listen to that which has descended unto The Messenger [ i.e., the Quran], you see their eyes spilling over with tears as they have recognized the truth; they say, “Our Lord! We believe. So write us amongst those who witness [the truth]” [Holy Quran 5:82-83]

Zaad Al-Masiir of Imam Jamaluddin Abul Farj ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Ali bin Muhammad Al-Jawziy says:

قوله تعالى: لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَداوَةً لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ قال المفسّرون: نزلت هذه الآية وما بعدها مما يتعلق بها في النجاشي وأصحابه. قال سعيد بن جبير: بعث النجاشي قوما إلى رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم، فأسلموا، فنزلت فيهم هذه الآية والتي بعدها، وسنذكر قصّتهم فيما بعد. قال الزجاج: واللام في «لتجدن» لام القسم، والنون دخلت تفصل بين الحال والاستقبال، و «عداوة» منصوب على التمييز ,واليهود ظاهروا المشركين على المؤمنين حسداً للنبيّ عليه السّلام.

The Almighty’s saying: {Indeed, you shall find the jews}, the exegetes have said: This verse, as well as the one after it and whatever in it is related to it, was revealed in regards to Najashi (Negus) and his companions. Sa’iid bin Jubayr has said: Najashi sent a group to RasulAllah ﷺ  and they accepted Islam. So this verse and the one after it was revealed in relation to them. And we shall discuss their event in what follows. The [Arabic letter] “Laam” in “latajidanna” (you will find) is the “Laam” of solemnization (and hence the “indeed” in the translation) and the [Arabic letter] “Nuun” introduces the distinction between the accusative and what follows. And “’adaawah” (enmity) is subjunctive upon the accusative of comparison. And the jews supported the idolators [in their enmity] against the believers out of envy to the Prophet, peace be upon him. 

قوله تعالى: وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا يعني: عبدة الأوثان. فأما الذين قالوا إِنا نصارى، فهل هذا عام في كل النصارى أم خاص؟ فيه قولان: أحدهما: أنه خاص، ثم فيه قولان: أحدهما: أنه أراد النجاشي وأصحابه لما أسلموا، قاله ابن عباس وابن جبير. والثاني: أنهم قوم من النصارى كانوا متمسّكين بشريعة عيسى، فلما جاء محمد عليه السلام أسلموا، قاله قتادة. والقول الثاني: أنه عام. قال الزجاج: يجوز أن يراد به النصارى لأنهم كانوا أقلَّ مظاهرةً للمشركين من اليهود.

The Almighty’s saying: {and the idolators}: It means those who worship idols. As regards to {those who said “We’re christians”}, then is it common to all christians or specific to a few? There are 2 sayings on it. The First Saying: is that it is specific and on it there are 2 sub-sayings; the first one: is that it refers to Najashi and his companions when they accepted Islam, this was said by Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Jubayr; and the second one: is that it is a group of christians who were steadfast upon the Shari’ah of [i.e. given to]  Jesus [adhering to Jesus’ call to worship Allah ALONE]; and when Muhammad peace be upon him arrived, they became Muslims [by accepting the last & final Prophet of Allah, and accepting the Shari’ah (canonic law) that he brought with him]. The Second Saying: is that it is common. Az-Zajjaaj said: It is possible that the reference by it is [all] christians because they were lesser supportive to the idolators than the jews.

قوله تعالى: ذلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْباناً قال الزجاج: «القس» و «القسيس» من رؤساء النصارى. وقال قطرب: القسيس: العالم بلغة الروم، فأما الرهبان: فهم العباد أرباب الصوامع. قال ابن فارس: الترهّب: التعبّد، فان قيل: كيف مدحهم بأن منهم قسيسين ورهبانا وليس ذلك من أمرِ شريعتنا؟ فالجواب: أنه مدحهم بالتمسّك بدين عيسى حين استعملوا في أمر محمد ما أخذ عليهم في كتابهم، وقد كانت الرهبانية مستحسنة في دينهم. والمعنى: بأن فيهم علماء بما أوصى به عيسى من أمر محمّد صلّى الله عليه وسلّم. قال القاضي أبو يعلى: وربما ظن جاهلٌ أن في هذه الآية مدح النصارى، وليس كذلك، لأنه إِنما مدح مَن آمن منهم، ويدل عليه ما بعد ذلك، ولا شك أن مقالة النصارى أقبح من مقالة اليهود.

The Almighty’s saying: {this is because they have priests and ascetics amongst them} Az-Zajjaj said: The “qiss” and the “qisseeseen” are from the christian nobility. And Qutrub said: It is the scholar in the language of the romans. And the ascetics: that they are the slaves of the monks of monasteries. Ibn Faris said: asceticism is worship. Then if it is said: “How can they be praised due to their having priests and ascetics and this is not a commandment of our Shari’ah?” The answer is: The praise for them is due to their clinging on to the canon of ‘Eisa wherein they adopted the command of Muhammad [ﷺ as per] whatever they took from their book; and asceticism is praised in their canon. The meaning: They had scholars whom ‘Eisa (Jesus) had commanded unto regarding Muhammad, ﷺ [i.e., his arrival and for them to accept his prophethood]. Qadzi Abu Ya’ala said: And maybe if a JAHIL thinks that in this verse, there is an admiration for christians, it isn’t like that, BECAUSE IT IS A PRAISE OF THOSE OF THEM WHO BELIEVED [in Tawhiid along with accepting the canonic law given to Jesus’], and what comes after this is evidence for it, and there is NO DOUBT that the saying of the christians [trinity] is uglier than the saying of the jews.

قوله تعالى: وَأَنَّهُمْ لا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ، أي: لا يتكبرون عن إتباع الحق.

The Almighty’s saying: {and they are not arrogant}- It means that they are NOT ARROGANT TO FOLLOW THE TRUTH.

[Zaad Al-Masiir’s Tafsiir of verse 5:83 starts]

قوله تعالى: وَإِذا سَمِعُوا ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ.

The Almighty’s saying: {And when they listen to that which has descended unto The Messenger}

قال ابن عباس: لمّا حضر أصحاب النبيّ صلّى الله عليه وسلّم بين يدي النّجاشيّ، وقرءوا القرآن، سمع ذلك القسيسون والرهبان، فانحدرت دموعهم مما عرفوا من الحق، فقال الله تعالى: ذلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ إلى قوله تعالى: الشَّاهِدِينَ.

Ibn ‘Abbas said: When the Prophet’s ﷺ companions appeared in front of Najashi and they read the Quran, these priests and ascetics heard it, their tears started flowing from what the truth that they knew. So Allah Ta’ala said: {This is because they have priests among them” until His saying “those who bear witness}

وقال سعيد بن جبير: بعث النجاشي من خيار أصحابه ثلاثين رجلاً إِلى رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم فقرأ عليهم القرآن، فبكوا ورقُّوا، وقالوا: نعرف والله، وأسلموا، وذهبوا إِلى النجاشي فأخبروه فأسلم، فأنزل الله فيهم وَإِذا سَمِعُوا ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ … الآية.

And Sa’iid bin Jubayr said: Najashi sent from his selected companions 30 men to RasulAllah ﷺ and he read unto them the Quran, and they cried and sobbed. And they said: We know, by Allah, and they became Muslims. And they went to Najashi and informed him and he became Muslim [too]. So Allah revealed in regards to them {And when they listen to what was revealed to the Messenger…} until the end of the verse.

وقال السدي: كانوا اثني عشر رجلاً سبعة من القسيسين، وخمسة من الرّهبان، فلمّا قرأ عليهم رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم القرآن، بكوا وآمنوا، فنزلت هذه الآية فيهم

And Suddi said: They were 12 men, 7 from the priests and 5 from the ascetics, and when RasulAllah ﷺ read the Quran unto them, they cried and believed, and this verse was revealed about them.

قوله تعالى: فَاكْتُبْنا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ، أي: مع من يشهد بالحق. وللمفسرين في المراد بالشاهدين هاهنا أربعة أقوال: أحدها: محمد وأُمته، رواه علي بن أبي طلحة، وعكرمة عن ابن عباس. والثاني: أصحاب محمّد صلّى الله عليه وسلّم، رواه أبو صالح عن ابن عباس. والثالث: الذين يشهدون بالإِيمان، قاله الحسن. والرابع: الأنبياء والمؤمنون، قاله الزجّاج.

The Almighty’s saying: {So write us amongst those who witness} means ‘with those who witness the truth’. And among the exegetes, in regards to what is referred by “shaahideen” (those who witness), there are 4 sayings. The First One: Muhammad ﷺ and his ummah (nation of Muslims). ‘Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated this. And ‘Ikrimah on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas. The Second One: The companions of Muhammad ﷺ, Abu Salih reports this on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas. The Third One: Those who testify upon belief, Al-Hasan said this. The Fourth One: The Prophets and the believers, Az-Zajjaaj said this.

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Lubab At-Tanziil of Imam ‘Alauddin ‘Ali bin Muhammad aka Khazen says:

قوله تعالى: لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَداوَةً لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا اللام في قوله لتجدن لام القسم تقديره والله يا محمد إنك لتجدن أشد الناس عداوة للذين آمنوا بك وصدقوك اليهود والذين أشركوا ووصف الله شدة عداوة اليهود وصعوبة إجابتهم إلى الحق وجعلهم قرناء المشركين عبدة الأصنام في العداوة للمؤمنين وذلك حسدا منهم للمؤمنين وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَوَدَّةً لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ قالُوا إِنَّا نَصارى ووصف لين عريكة النصارى وسهولة قبولهم الحق. قال بعضهم: مذهب اليهود أنه يجب عليهم إيصال الشر والأذى إلى من خالفهم في الدين بأي طريق كان مثل القتل ونهب المال بأنواع المكر والكيد والحيل، ومذهب النصارى خلاف اليهود، فإن الإيذاء في مذهبهم حرام، فحصل الفرق بين اليهود والنصارى. وقيل: إن اليهود مخصوصون بالحرص الشديد على الدنيا وطلب الرياسة ومن كان كذلك كان شديد العداوة لغيره.

The Almighty’s saying: {Indeed, you shall find the jews and the idolators as the staunchest in enmity to the believers [i.e., Muslims]} – The [Arabic letter] “Laam” in His saying is the “Laam” of solemnization amounting to [mean] ‘By Allah, O Muhammad [ﷺ]! Indeed, you shall find the staunchest in enmity to those who believe in you and affirm you, the jews and the idolators.’ And Allah has described the staunch enmity of the jews and their defiance in accepting the truth and has rendered them counterparts to the polytheists who worship idols, in the enmity to the believers. And this is due to their envy towards the believers. {and indeed, the closest in affinity to the believers you shall find those who said “We’re christians”} and He described the christians with a mellowed nature, susceptible to accept the truth. Some of them [exegetes] have said: The religion of the jews is that it obligates upon them the deliverance of harm and pain to anyone who opposes them in religion by any means possible, be it murder, or plundering of wealth by means of cheating, sly scheming, guile, deception etc. And the religion of the christians is at odds with the religion of the jews, as hurting is against their religion. So the difference between the jews and christians is established. And it is [also] said [by exegetes]: the jews are specialized in coveting the duniya and the desire for authority and whoever is like this, he will [surely] be staunch in enmity to others.

وأما النصارى، فإن فيهم من هو معرض عن الدنيا ولذتها وترك طلب الرياسة ومن كان كذلك فإنه لا يحسد أحدا ولا يعاديه بل يكون لين العريكة في طلب الحق لهذا قال تعالى: ذلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ يعني من النصارى قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْباناً وَأَنَّهُمْ لا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ ولم يرد به كل النصارى فإن معظم النصارى في عداوة المسلمين كاليهود بل الآية نزلت فيمن آمن من النصارى مثل النجاشي وأصحابه. والقس والقسيس: اسم رئيس النصارى والجمع قسيسون. وقال قطرب: القس والقسيس العالم بلغة الروم. وهذا مما وقع الوفاق بين اللغتين يعني العربية والرومية. وأما الرهبان، فهو جمع راهب. وقيل: الرهبان واحد وجمعه رهابين وهم سكان الصوامع.

As for the christians – Among them are those who are aloof of the duniya and its pleasures and have shunned the desire for power/authority and whoever is like this, he will [certainly] not be envious of anyone nor bear enmity to anyone but rather he will be of a mellow disposition in seeking the truth; that is why The Almighty has said: {this is because they have} meaning, from the christians, {priests and ascetics amongst them and they are not arrogant} and it does NOT relegate to ALL christians as the higher echelons of the christians are just like the jews in enmity to Muslims, BUT THE VERSE WAS REVEALED IN REGARDS TO THOSE CHRISTIANS WHO BELIEVED [in Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ prophethood, his call to Tawhiid, and accepted the canonic law he brought], like Najashi and his companions. And the “qiss” and “qissees”: it is the name of the leaders of the christians and the plural is “qisseesoon”. And Qutrub said: The qiss and the qissees is the scholar in the language of the romans; and this is a harmonization between two languages, meaning Arabic and roman. As for the “ruhbaan”, it is the plural of “raahib” and it is said: The “ruhbaan” is singular and the plural is “ruhabiyyeen” and they are the dwellers of monasteries.

فإن قلت: كيف مدحهم الله بذلك مع قوله وَرَهْبانِيَّةً ابْتَدَعُوها قلت: إنما مدحهم الله في مقابلة ذم اليهود ووصفهم بشدة العداوة للمؤمنين ولا يلزم من هذا القدر أن يكون مدحا على الإطلاق. وقيل: إنما مدح من آمن منهم بمحمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فوصفهم بالتمسك بدين عيسى إلى أن بعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فآمنوا به واتبعوه فإن قلت: كفر النصارى أشد وأغلظ من كفر اليهود وأقبح فإن النصارى ينازعون في الإلهيات فيدعون أن لله ولدا واليهود ينازعون في النبوات فيقرون ببعض النبيين وينكرون بعضهم والأول أقبح فلم ذم اليهود ومدح النصارى؟ قلت: إنما هو مدح في مقابلة ذم وليس بمدح على الإطلاق وقد تقدم الفرق بين شدة عداوة اليهود ولين النصارى فلذلك ذم اليهود ومدح النصارى الذين آمنوا منهم. واختلف العلماء في من نزلت هذه الآية فقيل نزلت في النجاشي ملك الحبشة واسمه أصحمة وأصحابه الذين أسلموا معه.

Then if you said: How has Allah praised them [the monks] by this along with His [also] saying {and monasticism, which they introduced [Verse 57:27, also talks about christian monks from the ummah of Jesus’ peace be upon him and says that monasticism is something they introduced by themselves and most of them were disbelievers except a few]} – I say: Indeed Allah praised them [only] juxtaposed against the revilement of the jews and He described them with staunch enmity towards believers and this does not necessitate it [the verse] amounting to absolute [and unconditional] praise [of all of them]. And it is [also] said [by scholars]: It is praise of those of them who believed in Prophet Muhammadﷺ so He described them with adherence to the path of Jesus [call to worship Allah alone, along with accepting the canonical laws he brought] until He sent RasulAllah ﷺ and they believed in him and followed him. Then if you said: The kufr of the christians is more severe and filthier than the kufr of the jews and more uglier, for the christians contend [evil beliefs] upon Divinity and they say that Allah has a son; while the jews contend [evil beliefs] in prophethood, as they acknowledge some prophets and deny some prophets; and the former [attributing son to Allah] is much uglier [than rejecting some prophets], so why the revilement of jews and praise of christians? I say: It is praise inasmuch as comparison of revilement and it is not absolute [and unconditional] praise and the difference between the staunchness of enmity of the jews and the mellowness of the christians has been described, AND THE PRAISE OF THE CHRISTIANS IS FOR THOSE OF THEM WHO BELIEVE [IN PROPHET MUHAMMD ﷺ]. And the scholars have disputed on in regards to whom this verse was revealed, and it is said, it was revealed in relation to Najashi, the emperor of Abyssinia, and his name as As-hamah, and his companions, who all accepted Islam along with him.

[Ibn ‘Abbas’s, the chieftain and the highest authority of the exegetes, narration regarding the acceptance of Islam of Najashi snipped. Lubab At-Tanziil’s Tafsiir of verse 5:83 below]

قوله عز وجل: وَإِذا سَمِعُوا ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ يعني: وإذا سمعوا القرآن الذي أنزل إلى الرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم تَرى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ يقال: فاض الإناء إذا امتلأ حتى يخرج منه ما فيه. وصفهم الله تعالى بسيل الدمع عند البكاء ورقة القلب عن سماع القرآن. قال ابن عباس: يريد النجاشي وأصحابه لما قرأ عليهم جعفر بن أبي طالب سورة مريم. قال: فما زالوا يبكون حتى فرغ جعفر من القراءة مِمَّا عَرَفُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ يعني الذي نزل على محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو الحق يَقُولُونَ يعني القسيسين والرهبان الذين سمعوا القرآن من جعفر عند النجاشي رَبَّنا آمَنَّا يعني بالقرآن وشهدنا أنه حق وصدق فَاكْتُبْنا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ يعني مع أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم الذين يشهدون بالحق

His Saying, exalted is His Majesty: {And when they listen to that which has descended unto The Messenger} means and when they listen to the Quran, which has descended unto the Messenger Muhammad ﷺ, {you see their eyes spilling over with tears } it is said: The pot overflows if it is filled, until whatever is in it, comes out of it. Allah Ta’ala has described them with an outpour of tears upon crying and tenderness of heart at the hearing of the Quran. Ibn ‘Abbas has said: [In this verse] Najashi and his companions are implied when Ja’afar bin Abi Talib read Surah Maryam to them. He said: And they didn’t stop crying until Ja’afar finished the recitation {as they have recognized the truth} means that which descended upon Muhammad ﷺ and it is the truth {they say} means the monks and priests WHO HEARD THE QURAN FROM JA’AFAR IN FRONT OF NAJASHI {Our Lord! We believe} means IN THE QURAN AND WE BEAR WITNESS THAT IT IS CERTAINTY AND THE TRUTH {So write us amongst those who witness} means ALONG WITH THE UMMAH OF MUHAMMAD ﷺ – THOSE WHO BEAR WITNESS UPON THE TRUTH.

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The same circumstances of revelation and same tafaasiir, as stated above, are mentioned in the other books of tafsiir as well.

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 Summary statement of the interpretations of verses 82 and 83 of Surah 5:

The Quran, its classical exegetes and the Islamic tradition say that:

1. The staunchest in enmity to Muslims are the jews and the idolaters.

2. The “christians” who are praised in verse 82 are the TRUE ummah of our Master Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, those who believed in the TRUE MESSAGE & CALL of our Master Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, and adhered to Tawhiid worshiping ONLY Allah – AND also accepted the canonical law he brought with him, which INCLUDES the command to accept our Master Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as Allah’s last and final Messenger when he arrives — and when he ﷺ did arrive, and they listened to the Quran —- THEY DID ACCEPT him ﷺ, his message, and the canonical law he ﷺ brought.

3. The very next verse no. 83 is a direct and open testament from the Quran itself, to the interpretation mentioned in point 2 above.

4. Additionally, WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF EXHIBITING ENMITY to Muslims – the christians are mellow compared to the jews and idolaters.

5. Point number 4 above only applies to their general populace. The elders and upper echelons of christianity are EQUALLY as staunch as the jews and idolaters, in enmity to Muslims.

6. All this despite the fact that the kufr of the christians (the ugly beliefs of trinity and ‘son of god’) is much uglier than the kufr of the jews (acceptance of some prophets and rejection of some others).

——————————————————————–

A jahil muftari and a liar living in Abu Dhabi, who claims to be a scholar from Yemen and belonging to the Prophet’s ﷺ progeny – who loves to knowingly or unknowingly misguide Muslims and honor christianity just the same way as the christian missionaries do – often euphorically quotes the latter part of verse 82 with direct or indirect implications that the Quran and the Islamic tradition honor and admire christians and christianity (as known now). Being the ‘slick’ person he is, he tries to avoid quoting the first part of verse 82, as he avoids quoting verse 83, as he avoids negating and refuting the trinity and declaring it as an evil belief.

Beware of him!

wAllahu waliyy-ut-tawfiiq.

 

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